Category: Staphylococcus infection

Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Staphylococcus aureus.

Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Staphylococcus aureus.
Vaccine. 2016 Apr 19;
Authors: Giersing BK, Dastgheyb SS, Modjarrad K, Moorthy V
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a…

Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with toxic shock syndrome: a case report.

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Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with toxic shock syndrome: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):160

Authors: Kosami K, Kenzaka T, Sagara Y, Minami K, Matsumura M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a mild encephalopathy caused by various pathological processes, but encephalopathy due to bacteria is rare.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman who on receiving chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer developed an altered mental status and dysarthria soon after fever from infection of a subcutaneous implantable port. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in her blood cultures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an ovoid lesion in the central portion of the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC). Although hypotension was not observed, we diagnosed probable toxic shock syndrome (TSS) based on fever (temperature: >38.9 °C), altered mental status, erythema, desquamation, thrombocytopenia, liver dysfunction, and creatine phosphokinase elevation. We administered antimicrobial therapy and her neurological symptoms improved gradually. The lesion in the SCC completely disappeared on MRI 7 days after disease onset.
CONCLUSIONS: We diagnosed this case as MERS caused by S. aureus bacteremia with TSS. This is the first report of such a case, and we suggest that when a TSS patient presents with neurological symptoms, the possibility of MERS should be considered.

PMID: 27091490 [PubMed – in process]

Retropubic Midurethral Sling Colonization With Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

Retropubic Midurethral Sling Colonization With Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2016 Apr 6;

Authors: Stone DE, Swarer KM, Barenberg BJ, OʼLeary DE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We present a case of Staphylococcus lugdunensis colonization of a midurethral sling. Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a common skin colonizer and has been isolated in cases of implanted prosthetic devices.
CASE: A 52-year-old female presented with suprapubic pain and recurrent urinary tract infections with S. lugdunensis starting 3 months after a retropubic sling procedure. After several months of continued pain and a suspicion of a mesh-related infection, the sling was removed. Culture of the sling material grew oxacillin-susceptible S. lugdunensis. Her symptoms resolved after sling removal and a postoperative course of antibiotics.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of S. lugdunensis colonization of vaginal mesh. Surgeons should be aware and knowledgeable about the possible complications arising from insertion of midurethral slings.

PMID: 27054795 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Disruption of the sigS gene attenuates the local innate immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse mastitis model.

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Disruption of the sigS gene attenuates the local innate immune response to Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse mastitis model.

Vet Microbiol. 2016 Apr 15;186:44-51

Authors: Peton V, Breyne K, Rault L, Demeyere K, Berkova N, Meyer E, Even S, Le Loir Y

Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen involved in ruminant mastitis and present worldwide. Clinical signs of S. aureus mastitis vary considerably and are largely dependent on strain-specific factors. A comparison of two S. aureus strains that reproducibly induced either severe (O11) or mild (O46) mastitis in ewes revealed that the transcriptional regulator sigS was mutated in O46 (Le Maréchal et al., 2011. PLoS One. 6 (11) e27354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027354). In the present paper, we analysed the sigS sequence in 18 other S. aureus strains isolated from goat or ewe mastitis and found a 4-bp deletion similar to that of the O46 sigS gene in three strains associated with subclinical ewe mastitis. This sigS gene was disrupted in strain O11 (O11ΔsigS), so our aim was to investigate its involvement in the severity of infections in the context of mastitis. The wild type (wt) and mutant strains were then characterized in vitro to determine the involvement of sigS in the response S. aureus under various stress conditions, and assess its influence on the cytotoxicity of the pathogen, its invasive capacity and biofilm formation. The strains were compared in vivo in an experimental mouse mastitis model in which clinical signs and cytokine production were evaluated at 24h post-infection. While no significant differences in the effect on bacterial growth between O11 and O11ΔsigS were observed either in vitro or in vivo, a significantly weaker in vivo production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α was measured in the mammary glands infected with the mutant strain, suggesting that infection with O11ΔsigS induced an attenuated local innate immune response. These results suggest an impact of sigS disruption on S. aureus pathogenesis in a ruminant mastitis context. This disruption is probably involved in, and may partly explain, the milder symptoms previously observed in S. aureus O46-induced mastitis in ewes.

PMID: 27016756 [PubMed – in process]

Mild forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-mediated exanthematous disease related to Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Mild forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-mediated exanthematous disease related to Staphylococcus aureus infection.

J Infect Chemother. 2016 Feb 25;

Authors: Moriguchi N, Kano T, Yoshimatsu Y, Yanagida H

Abstract
The present report describes three patients with toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1-associated exanthematous disease. In all patients, fever and systemic erythema without hemodynamic disturbance occurred following cellulitis of the lower limbs. At the site of infection, TSST-1 producing Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was detected. They defervesced and erythema resolved in response to administration of an antimicrobial drug, thereby avoiding severe illness. These patients did not meet the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome. Measurement of T-cell receptor Vβ2-positive T cells in the peripheral blood early after onset of symptoms was useful for diagnosis.

PMID: 26923257 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Bilateral primary psoas abscesses due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neutropenic patient: a case report.

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Bilateral primary psoas abscesses due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neutropenic patient: a case report.
J Med Case Rep. 2016;10(1):12
Authors: Bakri FG, Hadidy AM, Hadidi F, Ry…

Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection in restraint stressed mice modulates impaired immune response resulting in improved behavioral activities.

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Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection in restraint stressed mice modulates impaired immune response resulting in improved behavioral activities.
J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Nov 15;288:102-13
Authors: Ma…

Early oral switch therapy in low-risk Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABATO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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Early oral switch therapy in low-risk Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABATO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials. 2015;16(1):450

Authors: Kaasch AJ, Fätkenheuer G, Prinz-Langenohl R, Paulus U, Hellmich M, Weiß V, Jung N, Rieg S, Kern WV, Seifert H, SABATO trial group (with linked authorship to the individuals in the Acknowledgements section)

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) are treated with long courses of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. This serves to avoid SAB-related complications such as relapses, local extension and distant metastatic foci. However, in certain clinical scenarios, the incidence of SAB-related complications is low. Patients with a low-risk for complications may thus benefit from an early switch to oral medication through earlier discharge and fewer complications of intravenous therapy. The major objective for the SABATO trial is to demonstrate that in patients with low-risk SAB a switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy (oral switch therapy, OST) is non-inferior to a conventional course of intravenous therapy (intravenous standard therapy, IST).
METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is designed as randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded, clinical non-inferiority trial. The primary endpoint is the occurrence of a SAB-related complication (relapsing SAB, deep-seated infection, and attributable mortality) within 90 days. Secondary endpoints are the length of hospital stay; 14-day, 30-day, and 90-day mortality; and complications of intravenous therapy. Patients with SAB who have received 5 to 7 full days of adequate intravenous antimicrobial therapy are eligible. Main exclusion criteria are polymicrobial bloodstream infection, signs and symptoms of complicated SAB (deep-seated infection, hematogenous dissemination, septic shock, and prolonged bacteremia), the presence of a non-removable foreign body, and severe comorbidity. Patients will receive either OST or IST with a protocol-approved antimicrobial and are followed up for 90 days. Four hundred thirty patients will be randomized 1:1 in two study arms. Efficacy regarding incidence of SAB-related complications is tested sequentially with a non-inferiority margin of 10 and 5 percentage points.
DISCUSSION: The SABATO trial assesses whether early oral switch therapy is safe and effective for patients with low-risk SAB. Regardless of the result, this pragmatic trial will strongly influence the standard of care in SAB.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01792804 registered 13 February 2013; German Clinical trials register DRKS00004741 registered 4 October 2013, EudraCT 2013-000577-77 . First patient randomized on 20 December 2013.

PMID: 26452342 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning among Bulawayo City Council employees, Zimbabwe, 2014.

Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning among Bulawayo City Council employees, Zimbabwe, 2014.

BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:485

Authors: Gumbo A, Bangure D, Gombe NT, Mungati M, Tshimanga M, Hwalima Z, Dube I

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bulawayo City Council held an Integrated Result Based Management workshop among 86 employees from August 18-22, 2014 at Ikhwezi Training Centre in Bulawayo City. On August 21, 2014, a report of diarrhoea among Council employees attending the workshop was received. We investigated the outbreak to determine the risk factors associated with diarrhoea at Ikhwezi Training Centre, Bulawayo City.
METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted where 74 Council employees were interviewed on food consumed and presenting signs and symptoms. Stool specimens and hand swabs were collected for culture. Water samples were collected for bacteriological analysis. Food samples were not available. Data were analysed using Epi Info™ to generate frequencies, means, proportions, risk ratios, and attributable risk.
RESULTS: Of the 74 employees interviewed 34 (45.9 %) were males and 40 (54 %) were females. The response rate was 94 %. The common signs and symptoms included abdominal cramps (88.7 %), and watery diarrhoea (86.8 %). The overall attack rate was 71.6 %. Eating stewed chicken (RR = 2.52, 95 % CI 1.30-4.89) served at hour 13:00 during lunch on August 20, 2014 at Ikhwezi Training Centre was the only significant risk factor associated with food poisoning. Drinking purified bottled water [RR = 0.67, 95 % CI (0.57-0.79)] was found to be protective. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the hands and nails of food handlers.
CONCLUSION: The outbreak was due to food poisoning and was most likely caused by the Staphylococcus aureus formed toxins. Stewed chicken served during lunch on August 20, 2014 was the possible source of infection. Contamination might have occurred during food handling and preparation. Training of food handlers in basic food hygiene and safety is recommended.

PMID: 26416028 [PubMed – in process]

Active Immunization with Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Staphylococcus aureus Effectively Protects against Staphylococcal Lung Infections, Mainly via Th1 Cell-Mediated Immunity.

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Active Immunization with Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Staphylococcus aureus Effectively Protects against Staphylococcal Lung Infections, Mainly via Th1 Cell-Mediated Immunity.
PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0…

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